of tourism industry in
is a priority sector of His Majesty’s
Government (HMG) of
talking intra-regional tourism,
Quality tourism is
a sustainable tourism development that meets the needs of the present day
tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunity for the
future. It is envisaged that it will lead to the management of all resources in
such a way that economic, social, and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while
maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological
diversity, and life support systems.
promoting mass tourism, social and cultural impacts should be considered
carefully. There are several problems associated with development of tourism.
There are several examples of tourism being a prominent factor to damage
indigenous way of life and cultural values of the host countries.
is another popular concept widely discussed that strikes at balance between
nature and human beings to ensure co-existence of both. It is basically a
participatory process to minimize negative impact of tourism on nature giving
more priority to local conservation and development efforts.
Visit Nepal Year 1998 (VNY) programme had targeted to attract 500,000 tourists.
Although the target was not met it was a good experience to organize similar
programmes in the years ahead. HMG has decided to observe the Destination Nepal
Year (DNY) beginning from mid-2002 with the target of attracting one million
tourists. Given the national and international developments since the end of the
VNY programme, the target seems to be very ambitious.
year 2001 has witnessed around 16 % decline in tourist
last year. The
deteriorating political and security conditions in
依田明実（北海道大学 地球環境科学研究科 院生）
first trip to
bus took us from Pokhara to Phedi from where we started walking. Villages in the
field, rhododendron woods, steep slope, bushes, snow and rocks...the scenery
changed every day.
trails in and near the villages were paved with stones. We saw sheep, cow, yaks
and other livestock on the trail. There were very steep sections. We had to
climb down the very steep trail to go across a bridge and then we went up the
steep hill of the other side of the river.
time I turned back, and what I saw was the village we stayed at the night before
on the steep hillside far away. Then I recognized the distance I could walk in
one day. I never had a chance to confirm the distance with my own eyes how far I
could walk in one day, so the distance was a discovery for me. When I came back
were lucky to have a member who had a rich knowledge of wildlife, and we could
identify some raptors and mammals. Also we learned Nepalese words and short
phrases and games and dances from Nepalese staff members.
research topic is ecotourism, and when I think about ecotourism model, one of
the images comes to my mind is this trekking experience in
and women empowerment
growth of Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) operating in the third world is
enormous nowadays. Three major reasons-societal conflicts and tensions; the need
to respond more effectively to the crisis coming from the breakdown of
traditional social structures; and ideological and value differences to the
planning and implementation of development works– can be noted as relevant for
the NGO evolution.
the nongovernmental development schemes, there are three clear and distinct
participants: Grass-root Organizations (GROs); Local and National
Nongovernmental Development Organizations (NGDOs), which cater to the multiple
needs of grass-root sectors; and International Development Cooperation
Institutions (IDICs), which are international NGOs, solidarities or funding
Directory of NGOs in
economic empowerment refers to the access and control over economic resources,
whereas the social empowerment refers to the civil rights, awareness and
liberty. Though these issues are difficult to measure, some major social
development indicators are being used to meet this purpose, for example,
literacy rate, legal rights of women, basic health indicators, etc.
the core of all empowerment efforts, the basic objective remains how to make the
target group self-reliant. Though promoting economic self-reliance of the
deprived generally becomes the focal point in the empowerment process, the
socio-political empowerment can also not be ignored as they ultimately translate
into economic empowerment.
the decade of eighties, economic liberalism is developing in parallel with
social liberalism. In many development activities, non-government sectors have
been promoted, the role of them is basically to reach rural poor population and
help develop human development infrastructures. In these concurrent movements of
government and non-government activities, government mainly builds physical
infrastructures and the non-government organizations mainly work for social
welfare. The domestic NGOs in many countries are working in almost all areas of
development whereas the international NGOs are working in the areas of social
aspect of development in general and economic aspects in particular cases.
working in the areas of community development, women services, environmental
protection and youth activities are over 8000, constituting approximately 80% of
the total NGOs in the country. The community development activities basically
focus on deprived section of the society, mainly illiterate women, disables and dalits,
indicating that the major concern of NGOs is to empowering these sections of the
and forward move
are facing a challenge to organize themselves to work in more global and
strategic ways in the future. NGOs are addressing such challenge by integrating
micro and macro-level action in their projects and advocacy activities. The
changing global context challenges is making them adopt this natural way of
working. Recently, in the ground of empowerment, many NGOs have to work among
destitute poor women where the resource generation is virtually absent in one
hand, and have to compete in the more competitive world for winning the
resources, on the other. Working with dual strategies of security and
competition at the same time is really a challenge.
of fresh vegetables has been associated with the prevention of chronic
diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, aging, and several others
in humans. A significant inverse correlation has also been reported between
total vegetable intake and cerebrovascular disease mortality. Food scientists
indicated that a constant supply of vegetable with desirable health benefits
is essential beyond basic nutrition to furnish the defensive mechanism to
reduce the risk of chronic diseases.
the most commonly consumed 10 vegetables, namely, Broccoli, Cabbage,
Carrot, Celery, Cucumber, Lettuce, Onion, Potato, Red pepper and Spinach,
following is the suggested reference order for consumers to choose on the
basis of their health promotional (Bioactivity Index) activities.
is an innovative approach to adult learning and social change, which blends the
theory of Paulo Freire
(1921-1997) with the methodology of participatory rural appraisal (PRA)
while working with the community. Paulo Freire was a Brazil-born educator, who
is renowned for his struggle to liberation of the poorest of the poor, the
marginalized classes that constitute the culture of silence in many places. His
philosophy on culture of silence is a characteristic attributed to the oppressed
people, who would internalize their images negatively (images created and
imposed by the oppressor) and feel incapable of self-governance.
pilot projects, the Reflect approach was first applied in
was adopted in
contrast to the conventional adult education program, which is fully focused on
'literacy learning circle'; Reflect is rather a 'social or community forum',
which provides people with a framework for critical self and social analysis.
The Reflect Approach also provides a 'basket of tools and techniques' for this
analysis. It helps create a democratic space and culture, which can facilitate
the process of critical analysis.
addition to literacy, this approach also emphasizes on organizing the community
for collective reflection about various aspects of their lives. The
early stages of organizing dalits in Saptari District were greatly facilitated
by the structure created by Reflect Centers. In 1998, 15 women centers
were launched to establish women network and provide them an opportunity to
identify and discuss issues related with their skills, and develop confidence as
well as leadership. In their meetings, the women began conducting an analysis of
the caste system and the situation of women. Groups also discussed the
importance of creating an action plan to counter discrimination and identified
the need to develop an organization to create group strength. In response,
eight women’s Sanghams (organization) were formed.
themselves served to break down caste barriers, raised the participants’
self-confidence and dignity. The rigid caste discrimination (between dalit
and non-dalit women; for example, when the Reflect classes were started, dalits
had to sit outside the class and were not allowed to use the same water tap or
share food with the non-dalit class members) existing at the beginning began to
break down. This motivated in-depth analysis and discussion on rigid caste
divisions in the Reflect circles. Barriers were gradually broken down and
conscious changes were made to rectify the unjust treatment over the dalits.
After some time, non-dalit and dalit women started to mingle around, share food
and sit together in a common class. This in itself was a major achievement
over the stringent cultural taboos surrounding the caste behavior.
turning point in the development of the dalit movement in this area was
Sangham’s decision to abandon their traditional jobs to throw carcass as
vested by the caste system. Although carcass throwing was a job relegated
only to the chamar (shoemaker) caste, Sangham was able to unite the castes in
supporting the ban because the job was a perfect example of the caste-based
exploitation and discrimination against dalit. This directly challenged
and attacked to the roots of the caste system and provoked a new level of
opposition by the high caste community. Realizing this, participation in
sangham groups from dalits got increased and thus the dalit movement gained
momentum. The dalit communities’ solidarity, and ultimate victory in
sustaining the boycotts, confirmed their faith and commitment to the movement,
helping attract new members and spreading the dalit movement throughout the
altitude geomorphic processes and their significances in the
Pauwai Gaunde-2, Syangja
implications of the studies on periglacial processes in high altitude
25 percent of
we observe mountains closely, it is found that the present mountain landscapes
are the result of many geomorphic processes of the long past. The processes
include snow ice avalanches; debris/mud flow and torrential floods; rockfall;
glacial lake outburst; slow mass movement; and shallow soil erosion on
grassland; they are related either with the glacial or freeze thaw processes,
and are controlled directly or indirectly by the climatic factors. The magnitude
and the intensity of these processes are increasing in recent decades because of
the so-called Global warming.
of these processes are of high magnitude with low frequency i.e. GLOF, and has
tremendous effects in down stream. There are 2,323 glacial lakes in
or Haritalika is purely a women's festival. It takes place in late August
or early September. The festival is a three-day long celebration that
combines sumptuous feasts as well as rigid fasting. Through this
religious fasting, Nepali women pray for marital bliss, well being of
their spouse and children and purification of their own body and soul.
group picture taken during Teej Festival
the ritual of Teej is obligatory for all married women and girls who have
reached puberty. According to the holy books, the Goddess Parbatee fasted
and prayed fervently for the great Lord Shiva to become her spouse. Touched by
her devotion, he made her his wife. Goddess Parbatee, in gratitude, sent her
emissary to preach and disseminate this religious fasting to women wishing
prosperity and longevity of their family’s the lives. Thus, the festival
of Teej was born.
important part of the Teej is called the "Dar-Khane-Din". On this day
the women, both married and unmarried, assemble at one place, in their
finest attires (mostly women are seen wearing red garments invariable and
decked in all sorts of jewellery), and start dancing and singing with
devotional Teej songs. The jollity often goes on till midnight, after
which the 24 - hour fasting commences. Some women stay without any food or
even a drop of water while others take liquid and fruit. On the third day, women
goes to river and bath with “datiwoon’ a plant with regular nodules. Teej
ends with Panchamee puja (religious ceremony) with offerings of flowers, fruits,
etc., to Shiva and Parbati, beseeching their blessing upon the husband
Nepali women residing at Hokkaido Japan, celebrated Teej of 2060 BS. The program was
organized on the auspicious day of Teej (on Aug 29, 2003) at
International Plaza of Hokkaido University. All Nepali family members, including women,
men and children, participated. The program was started at 6:00 PM, by singing a
Teej song “Teej Ko Lahar Ayo Bari Lai”and later the environment
become livelier with group dance. The additional funs of this program
were couple as well as group photo sessions, jokes and musical chair
competition. Finally, we enjoyed with typical Nepali foods, as a part
of special dinner called DAR. The specialty of this dinner was: individual women
prepared particular dish. Oh! Khir, Masu-Bahat (meat and rice), Acchar,
Tarkari (vegetable), Salad, Noodles, etc., were so delicious that we really
enjoyed with these multiple tastes. Finally, group dancing with famous Nepali
folk song “Wari Jamuna Pari Jamuna” ended Teej festival around 9:00
potential and Nepal
mountains and landscapes, wide biodiversity, climatic variation within of the
short distance, locally spread tribal ethnic culture are the key offerings of
growing interest of people to wander the undisturbed nature could most be
of undisturbed nature with the local living standard could provide unique
experience to the visitors and it will also help both for comfortable
interactions. It will provide both of them to know closely and share their
opinions and experience on the more natural ground without the bound of their
economic and intellectual difference. It will also make possible to have the
direct economic benefit and employment generation to the village level people.
use of energy, information centers, hygienic condition improvement activities,
community approach for the equal sharing of benefits, capacity building
activities are the sectors where the central, local level government and non
government organization have to play crucial role with the maximum participation
of the local people on its management and the decision making.
and capacity building of the local people should be addressed extensively as it
will decide on the success of the targeted aim. For the equal sharing of the
benefits either community based income sources could be established such as
community lodge, camping site and other recreational activities/spots or there
should be minimum standard rules and regulation for providing the facilities. It
will help for the fair contest in the community with poor economic background.
Community based management committee should play important role on the community
based decision and directives
the balance of the energy consumption due to the flux of the tourist,
alternative source of energy, which could be micro hydropower, solar power,
improved stove or kerosene etc, should be promoted. Micro hydro, solar power
generation could be developed with the joint contribution of village level
people and help from governmental/non-governmental organizations providing
subsidy, supervision and backstopping. Kerosene depot could be established even
through the local capacity.
energy: a sustainable future for all
Final Report of G8
Renewable Energy Task Force 2001
a key element
of sustainable development.
development that has at present been the goal of mankind and the planet
is a kind of development
that guarantees everyone
the means and
place to carry on lives and various activities attached to them without
compromising the need of future generations.
The fundamental needs of a society encompass food,
housing, health and clothing,
and in more
includes education, culture, civil rights, quality of the natural environment,
fuels and electricity in today's world are not universally accessible. The
current energy system is neither
to support widespread economic growth. The productivity of one third of the
world’s population is restrained
by lack of
access to commercial energy, and another one
economic hardship and insecurity due to unreliable energy supplies. Inappropriate
and consumption can
threaten the health and well being of current and future generations.
is to address this global challenge of establishing appropriate energy
global energy demand is ever increasing due to the increasing population and
industrialization. Most of the energy used is generated from fossil fuels, which
is now considered as a major source of man-made pollution
with eventual negative impacts like climatic
acid rain, and problems for waste disposal. In
developing countries, non-commercial
wood and animal
dung overwhelmingly dominate household energy consumption, resulting
and indoor pollution.
on non-renewable resources can be regarded as unsustainable in the long term.
In this regard, promotion of renewable energy is a very important global
Renewable energy sources are
current ambient energy flows or from substances derived from them. These include
solar energy, hydropower, bio energy, wind energy, wave and tidal energy,
ocean, hydrogen fuel cells as
well as domestic and industrial wastes. Renewable
energies are considered effective
environmental and developmental concerns simultaneously,
sustainable energy creating
The ratio of
non-renewable to renewable energy resources represents a measure of a country's
the use of such
energy is gradually getting to be an important topic
in the recent development discussions.
sustainable energy requires
of strong governmental and intergovernmental leadership in adopting policies
that promote conservation and sustainable energy production and use. National
organizations and various major groups of civil society, including NGOs, too
have very critical role in attaining this.
Networking of major stakeholders in civil society should be established to share
information on sustainable energy and the transfer of energy technologies. This
regional and international cooperation and technology transfer.
energy sources can contribute towards reduction in dependency of imported fossil
energy demands and provides national energy security.
Renewable energy sources assume special significance in the country like
increasing the utilization of renewable energy, sustainable
efficient use of energy, especially at the point of end use in buildings,
electric appliances, vehicles, and production processes.
This should be backed up with generation of new
Since the renewable energy resources are diffuse and decentralized, they are more appropriate in meeting basic energy needs of the rural poor. The operational cost of renewable energy is often very low and at times even zero, through their initial capital costs are often at present higher than those of conventional energy technologies. If locally available sources are used to tap renewable energies, local control can be enhanced. In this manner, renewable energy can be utilized to supplement or gradually replace conventional energy in meeting energy needs in an equitable and sustainable way.
of hard disk drives and giant magneto
resistance read head sensors
Rizal and Y. Ueda
Muroran Institute of Technology, Muroran
disk drive is one of the essential components of modern-day personal computers.
The first storage medium used on computers was actually paper; holes
were punched into paper tape or cards to record data. A beam of light was used
to read: where a hole was found it read “1”, otherwise “0”. The
evolution so advanced that modern hard disk drive, which employs magnetic
multilayer films, has no physical contact between the read head sensor and
surface of the hard disk.
Platter showing Tracks/Sectors
hard disk uses round flat disks called platters, coated on both sides
with a special media material designed to store information in the form
of magnetic patterns (Fig. 1). The platters are mounted in the center by
cutting a hole and stacking them onto a spindle. The platters rotate at high
speed, driven by a special spindle motor connected to the spindle.
Special electromagnetic read/write devices called heads are mounted onto sliders
and used to either record information onto the disk or read information from it.
The sliders are mounted onto arms, all of which are mechanically
connected into a single assembly and positioned over the surface of the disk. A logic
board controls the action of the other components and communicates with the
rest of the personal computers (PCs). Each facade of each platter on
the disk can hold tens of billions of individual bits of data. Each platter has
two heads, one on the top of the platter and one on the bottom, so a hard disk
with three platters (normally) has six surfaces and six total heads. Each
platter has its information recorded in concentric circles called tracks
(Fig. 2). Each track is further broken down into smaller
pieces called sectors, each of which holds 512 bytes of information.
field dependence of magneto-resistance ratio with the current flown
perpendicular to the magnetic field is shown in Fig. 3. The electrical
resistance of the thin film prepared by electro -deposition method
decreases on the application magnetic field. There is a sharp decrease in
electrical resistance of the multilayers or thin films on the application of the
magnetic field which is referred to as sensitivity. The sensitivity of the
multilayer films [Co10 Å-Au10 Å]40 as shown in the figure is about
1.5% at the magnetic filed of 20 kOe. The more the sensitivity, the better the
performance of the read head sensor.
sensitive change in resistance, discovered as giant magnetoresistive (GMR)
in the late-1980s, was noticed in the late 1980s when the material was subjected
to magnetic fields while working with large magnetic fields and thin layers of
various magnetic materials; the discovery of GMR effect formed the basis for the
development of present hard disk drives.
structure of present GMR head assembly is shown in Fig. 4. Furthermore, a
key advance was the discovery that the GMR effect would work on multilayers of
materials deposited by various preparation techniques. The hard disk products
using GMR heads were first produced commercially in December 1997.
MR ratio as a function of field (H)
of a GMR head
(+) values represented as “1” and lower (-) negative as “0” and
Conceptual Operation of a Sensor
hard disk heads were working by making use of the two main principles of
electromagnetic force. The first is that applying an electrical current through
a coil produces a magnetic field; when writing to the disk. The direction of the
magnetic field produced dependent on the direction of the current flow in the
coil. The second is the opposite that applying a magnetic field to a coil will
cause an electrical current to flow; when reading back the previously written
information. Again here, the direction of the current flow dependent on the
direction of the magnetic field applied to the coil. Newer MR/GMR heads don't
use the induced current in the coil to read back the information; they function
instead by using the principle of MR,
where certain materials change their resistance when subjected to different
magnetic fields. The heads are composites that include a different element for
writing and reading. This design is more complicated to manufacture, but is
required because the MR effect used in these heads only functions in the read
mode. Having separate units for writing and reading also allows each to be tuned
to the particular function it does, while a single head must be designed as a
compromise between fine-tuning for the write/read function.
magneto-resistance / Spin Valve heads are superior to conventional MR. The
sensitivity of the modern GMR/Spin Valve Sensors used in the modern personal
computers lies in the range of 5% to 8%, which is almost four times higher than
the older MR heads. GMR heads used in the latest technology drives have
capacities of up to 75 GB and areal densities of approximately 10 to 15 Gbits/in2.
As of 2002, the development of an advanced GMR head for reading data on hard
disk drives with recording densities of 300 gigabits per square inch (Gb/in2)
and greater has already been successful in
uses of Artemisia species in Japan and Nepal
(Artemisia spp.), common plant in
species, is distributed widely in different geographical regions. International
Plant Name Index Query (http://www.ipni.org/ipni/query_ipni.html) showed 2058
entries for genus ‘Artemisia’, reflecting richness of species and
varieties of Artemisia genus.
A. vulgaris and A.
Montana are widely distributed in
plant, ‘yomogi’ in Japanese and ‘noya’ in Ainu languages,
is called ‘pati’ or ‘titepati (bitter-leaf plant)’ in
major traditional uses of mugwort by Ainu people are listed below; however, the
present-day continuations of such uses are yet to be investigated.
people have high spiritual value associated with mugwort plant. They believe
that the stems and leaves of mugwort plant protect them from the demons of
sickness related to smell. This belief was based mainly on the smell of Artemisia,
which they think would discourage the demons to come near that plant.
was used for treating people with psychogenic disturbances. The patient had to
be slapped with the plant while shouting ‘hussa!’,
‘husse!’ or ‘hus!’ for chasing the devils away. Chasing started
from patient’s head to down through to the feet, and repeated the process
smoke from mugwort-stem fire are
thought to be
effective in purifying the person affected by psychogenic disease. Withered
mugwort stems were bundled and piled for forming six house-like objects on the
riverbank. Once the objects were on fire, the patient was forced to pass 12
times through fire (to and fro for 6 times).
walking/working in the places where devils were thought to be present, Ainu
people used to put branches of mugwort on their head, usually along two ears
wrapping by a scarf, and facing the upside of the branches forward (see figure
Ainu woman with mugwort leaves (Copied from a publication of Foundation for
Research and Promotion of Ainu culture)
people consider that mugwort has special power to chase devils away; they
believed that eating stems and leaves (decocting and drinking leaves and stems
of mugwort) drove the disease god away, effectively protecting against any
parasite into their body. They used to eat rice gruel and the leaves and stems
of mugwort (sprinkling sliced young leaves over rice gruel boiled hot) to
prevent infection with or for vermifuge of roundworms and tapeworms. The most
reasonable method of treatment for vermifugal action was to eat regularly noya
(mugwort)-sayo (rice gruel) or to
was easily available medicine for emergency hemostatic and antiseptic treatments
on cuts. Ainu people used to pick the soft leaves of mugwort growing nearby,
crush them and press them on the affected part for sometime. After that they
used to tie the leaves on with cloth, other large leaves or bark of the Betula
spp. This treatment was said to prevent suppuration.
Pharmaceutical research has traced the anti-inflammatory action in the poultice of the leaves of Artemisia as well.
technique of treatment for cold (diaphoretic treatment) was called Yay
(oneself)-su (pan)-maw (steam)-kare (to cause to do).
Method followed by
decocted mugwort in a large
pan. The patient sitting near the hearth holds the pan. Patient’s head needs
to be covered with a hood-like cloth (a blanket would be good), covering his/her
face and the pan. Then the steam/vapour causes the patient to perspire.
Sometimes the patient drinks the decoction to accelerate the process. The
process lasts for 5 to 8 minutes depending upon the steam flow and condition of
the patient. The
people used to treat venereal disease such as syphilis and gonorrhoea with
mugwort plants. Washing genitals by leaves and stems of mugwort or/and drinking
the decoction were found to be effective for controlling such venereal diseases.
diseases were treated with leaves of mugwort plant. Broiled leaves of the plant
used to be attached to the eyelid of the affected eyes.
was also said to be appropriate for relieving from dental problems. Mugwort
leaves used to be grounded and mixed with salt, then applied to the root of the
aching tooth/teeth. Sometimes boiled leaves were chewed with aching tooth/teeth.
plant was considered as insect repellent as
well (see the
the basis of these traditional experiences, various products are developed from
mugwort plants in
spring, people prepare mochi,
dango and cha from mugwort leaves for own use. Yomogi
sweets are popular in festivals like hina-matsuri (doll’s festival) and
kodomo-no-hi (children’s day). Sweet factories, such as Rokkatei, use
fresh yomogi during spring and procure frozen to use in other times of the year.
As the spring in
has high spiritual value in
It is also used extensively in spiritual treatment of patient. Local healers use the foliage in chasing the evils away from the patient’s body.
Mugwort flower has special importance during dashain (biggest festival of Hindu in September/October) celebration. Senior people bless younger putting mugwort flowers/foliages on their head. Flowering of mugwort is also an indication of approaching dashain festival.
plant is the most reliable and accessible medicine to rural people in
is very effective in protecting from leeches. People who have to walk or work in
leech-prone areas rub its leaves on their skin. If they find
on their body, they simply squeeze the leaves and drop the extract on the
bite-spot. Then the leech immediately ceases biting and vomits blood.
foliages are kept in the room to get rid of fleas.
made of its foliage is thought to be effective in maintaining healthy
environment by repelling the insects.
is used as green manure, and more as insecticide. Usually the green foliages are
used to mulch seedbeds. Its stems are also used for support for young bean
plants, probably, presuming its insecticidal role to protect the young sprouts.
plant is the most favourite fodder of goat, and thus contributes to the rural
economy in the hill regions of
spiritual and material values of mugwort plant are recognised in
is used as fodder for goat in
mugwort plant is now used in
K. H. (2003): Field notes from
(2000): Recollections of Daily Life in Nibutani (アイヌ歳時記―二風谷のくらしと心).
Heibonsha Publishing Co., Inc.
Y. and Takemura, H. (1993): Studies on diseases and the medical treatments
of Ainu people. Takeuchi Publishing Co., Inc.